IPC 2013 : F : SECTION F — MECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING.

IPC2013 > F[s] > SECTION F — MECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING.
F01 MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES.
Notes[t] F01 - F04: ENGINES OR PUMPS
F02 COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS.
F03 MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR.
F04 POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS.
Notes[n] F04:
  • Combinations of positive-displacement and non-positive-displacement pumps are classified in subclass F04B as a general subclass for pumps, and in subclasses F04C, F04D in respect of matter specific to those subclasses.
F15 FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL.
Notes[t] F15 - F17: ENGINEERING IN GENERAL
F16 ENGINEERING ELEMENTS OR UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL.
F17 STORING OR DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS.
F21 LIGHTING.
Notes[t] F21 - F28: LIGHTING; HEATING
Notes[n] F21:
  • Attention is drawn to Note III   of Section   H, and in particular that subclass H05B covers electrical aspects of the same technical subjects that are covered by class F21 .
F22 STEAM GENERATION.
Notes[n] F22:
  • In this class, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:
    • "steam" covers also other condensable vapours, e.g. mercury, diphenyl, diphenyl oxide.
F23 COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES.
Notes[n] F23:
  • In this class, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:
    • "combustion" means the direct combination of oxygen gas, e.g. in air, and a burnable substance. Any other heat-producing combination of chemical substances, e.g. hydrogen peroxide and methane, iron oxide and aluminium, is covered by section C or by subclass F24J;
    • "combustion chamber" means a chamber in which fuel is burned to establish a self-supporting fire or flame and which surrounds that fire or flame;
    • "burner" means a device by which fluid fuel, or solid fuel suspended in air, is passed to a combustion space where it burns to produce a self-supporting flame;
    • "air" means a mixture of gases containing free oxygen and able to promote or support combustion.
F24 HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING.
Notes[n] F24:
  • In this class, the following terms are used with the meanings indicated:
    • "stove" includes apparatus which may have an open fire, e.g. fireplace;
    • "range" means an apparatus for cooking having elements that perform different cooking operations or cooking and heating operations.
F25 REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION OR SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES.
F26 DRYING.
F27 FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS.
Notes[n] F27:
  • This class covers :
    • furnaces, kilns, ovens, retorts, open sintering apparatus and other similar apparatus for heat treatment of materials or articles, and details or accessories therefor, in general;
    • the arrangement of electrical heating elements in or on furnaces.
  • This class does not cover :
    • combustion apparatus per se , i.e. apparatus for direct combination of oxygen gas and a burnable substance;
    • electrical heating elements per se ;
    • processes carried on within the furnaces.
  • In this class, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:
    • "furnaces" covers kilns, ovens, or retorts.
F28 HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL.
Notes[n] F28:
  • In this class, the following expressions are used with the meanings indicated:
    • "heat exchange" means the heating or cooling of a fluid or fluent solid by direct or indirect contact with a heated or cooled fluid or fluent solid;
    • "heat transfer" means the heating or cooling of a fluid or fluent solid by direct contact with a heated or cooled surface or body.
  • Apparatus using heat exchange or heat transfer (as defined in Note (1) above) for specific purposes is classified either in subclass F28B or in the appropriate subclasses of, for example, classes F22, F24, F25, F26, or F27; if no such other subclass is appropriate, such apparatus is classified in subclass F28C or F28D .
F41 WEAPONS.
Notes[t] F41 - F42: WEAPONS; BLASTING
Notes[n] F41:
  • This class covers also means for practice and training which may have aspects of simulation, e.g. in apparatus for so-called "military games", although simulators are generally covered by class G09 .  
  • In this class, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:
    • "smallarm" means a firearm which is generally held with one or both hands for firing, but this term also includes a light machine-gun which may be supported on a tripod or the like during firing;  
    • "gun" means any weapon having a barrel and a trigger or firing mechanism for projecting a missile; it may be a piece of ordnance or a smallarm. It may use combustible or explosive propellant charges, air pressure, electromagnetism or other propulsive forces;  
    • "revolver-type gun" means a gun having a revolving drum magazine, the chambers of which are used successively as firing chamber;  
    • "revolver" means a revolver-type pistol;  
    • "semi-automatic firearm" means a firearm from which one shot is fired after actuation of the trigger and which then returns to a condition for firing a subsequent shot upon renewed actuation of the trigger;
    • "automatic firearm" means a firearm which will continue firing so long as the initial firing pressure is maintained on the trigger;
    • "sighting" means bringing into visual coincidence a direction defined by a so-called "sighting" device with the direction of a target;
    • "aiming" means bringing a weapon to a direction differing from the sighting direction by corrections in order that the projectile may hit the target;
    • "laying" means setting a weapon in the correct position for hitting a target.
  • Attention is drawn to the definitions of "projectile", "missile" and "rocket" given in Note (2) following the title of class F42 .  
F42 AMMUNITION; BLASTING.
Notes[n] F42:
  • This class covers also means for practice or training which may have aspects of simulation, although simulators are generally covered by class G09 .
  • In this class, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:
    • "primer" effects the first explosive step in the sequence of explosion;  
    • "percussion cap" means a primer which is struck to explode;  
    • "igniter" effects the first spark-producing or heat-producing step but may not be explosive;  
    • "firing-means" or "initiator" (used respectively in the arts of weaponry and blasting) means a device acting directly on the primer, which device may or may not form part of the fuze;  
    • "detonator" or "detonator charge" means a charge used to amplify the explosion of the primer;  
    • "fuze" means an assembly or mechanism which incorporates safety and arming means in order that the explosion can only take place under certain conditions; this assembly or mechanism determines also the moment (instantaneous or delayed) or the manner, e.g. impact, proximity, hydrostatic pressure, of the firing;  
    • "ammunition" covers propulsive charge and projectile whether or not forming a single body, unless otherwise made clear;  
    • "projectile", "missile" or "projectile or missile" means any body which is projected or propelled;  
    • "guided missile" means projectile or missile which is guided during at least part of its trajectory;  
    • "rocket" means projectile or missile which is self-propelled, during at least part of its trajectory, by a rocket engine, i.e. by a jet-propulsion engine carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor;  
    • "fuse" or "fuse cord" means a continuous train of explosive enclosed in a usually flexible cord or cable for setting-off an explosive charge in the art of blasting.  
F99 SUBJECT MATTER NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR IN THIS SECTION.