IPC 2013 : C : SECTION C — CHEMISTRY; METALLURGY.

IPC2013 > C[s] > SECTION C — CHEMISTRY; METALLURGY.
Notes[n] C:
  • In section C, the definitions of groups of chemical elements are as follows:
    • Alkali metals: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr
    • Alkaline earth metals: Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra
    • Lanthanides: elements with atomic numbers 57 to 71 inclusive
    • Rare earths: Sc, Y, Lanthanides
    • Actinides: elements with atomic numbers 89 to 103 inclusive
    • Refractory metals: Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta, W
    • Halogens: F, Cl, Br, I, At
    • Noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
    • Platinum group: Os, Ir, Pt, Ru, Rh, Pd
    • Noble metals: Ag, Au, Platinum group
    • Light metals: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, Be, Al, Mg
    • Heavy metals: metals other than light metals
    • Iron group: Fe, Co, Ni
    • Non-metals: H, B, C, Si, N, P, O, S, Se, Te, noble gases, halogens
    • Metals: elements other than non-metals
    • Transition elements: elements with atomic numbers 21 to 30 inclusive, 39 to 48 inclusive, 57 to 80 inclusive, 89 upwards
  • Section C covers :
    • pure chemistry, which covers inorganic compounds, organic compounds, macromolecular compounds, and their methods of preparation;
    • applied chemistry, which covers compositions containing the above compounds, such as: glass, ceramics, fertilisers, plastics compositions, paints, products of the petroleum industry. It also covers certain compositions on account of their having particular properties rendering them suitable for certain purposes, as in the case of explosives, dyestuffs, adhesives, lubricants, and detergents;
    • certain marginal industries, such as the manufacture of coke and of solid or gaseous fuels, the production and refining of oils, fats and waxes, the fermentation industry (e.g., brewing and wine-making), the sugar industry;
    • certain operations or treatments, which are either purely mechanical, e.g., the mechanical treatment of leather and skins, or partly mechanical, e.g., the treatment of water or the prevention of corrosion in general;
    • metallurgy, ferrous or non-ferrous alloys.
  • In all sections of the IPC, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, the Periodic System of chemical elements referred to is the one with 8 groups as represented in the table below. For example, group C07F 3/00   "Compounds containing elements of the 2nd Group of the Periodic System" refers to the elements of columns IIa and IIb.
    • In the case of operations, treatments, products or articles having both a chemical and a non-chemical part or aspect, the general rule is that the chemical part or aspect is covered by section C.
    • In some of these cases, the chemical part or aspect brings with it a non-chemical one, even though purely mechanical, because this latter aspect either is essential to the operation or treatment or constitutes an important element thereof. It has seemed, in fact, more logical not to dissociate the different parts or aspects of a coherent whole. This is the case for applied chemistry and for the industries, operations and treatments mentioned in Notes (1)(c), (d) and (e). For example, furnaces peculiar to the manufacture of glass are covered by class C03 and not by class F27 .
    • There are, however, some exceptions in which the mechanical (or non-chemical) aspect carries with it the chemical aspect, for example:
      • Certain extractive processes, in subclass A61K;
      • The chemical purification of air, in subclass A61L;
      • Chemical methods of fire-fighting, in subclass A62D;
      • Chemical processes and apparatus, in class B01;
      • Impregnation of wood, in subclass B27K;
      • Chemical methods of analysis or testing, in subclass G01N;
      • Photographic materials and processes, in class G03, and, generally, the chemical treatment of textiles and the production of cellulose or paper, in section D.
    • In still other cases, the pure chemical aspect is covered by section C and the applied chemical aspect by another section, such as A, B or F, e.g., the use of a substance or composition for:
      • treatment of plants or animals, covered by subclass A01N;
      • foodstuffs, covered by class A23;
      • ammunition or explosives, covered by class F42 .
    • When the chemical and mechanical aspects are so closely interlocked that a neat and simple division is not possible, or when certain mechanical processes follow as a natural or logical continuation of a chemical treatment, section C may cover, in addition to the chemical aspect, a part only of the mechanical aspect, e.g., after-treatment of artificial stone, covered by class C04 . In this latter case, a note or a reference is usually given to make the position clear, even if sometimes the division is rather arbitrary.
C01 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY.
Notes[t] C01 - C14: CHEMISTRY
Notes[n] C01:
  • In subclasses C01B - C01G, and within each of these subclasses, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, a compound is classified in the last appropriate place, e.g. potassium permanganate is classified only as a permanganate compound, in subclass C01G
  • Biocidal, pest repellant, pest attractant or plant growth regulatory activity of compounds or preparations is further classified in subclass A01P
C02 TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE.
C03 GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL.
C04 CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES.
Notes[n] C04:
  • This class does not cover mechanical features provided for elsewhere, e.g. mechanical working B28, kilns F27 .
C05 FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF.
Notes[n] C05:
  • An ingredient in a mixture of fertilisers, or a single fertiliser which contains more than one of the chemical elements on which the subdivision into subclasses is based, is classified only in the first of the appropriate subclasses. Thus, a nitrophosphate or an ammoniated superphosphate is classified in C05B but not in C05C, magnesium phosphate is classified in C05B but not in C05D, and calcium cyanamide in C05C but not in C05D .
  • Any ingredient in a mixture, which is considered to represent information of interest for search, may also additionally be classified according to Note (1). This can, for example, be the case when it is considered of interest to enable searching of mixtures using a combination of classification symbols. Such non-obligatory classification should be given as "additional information".
C06 EXPLOSIVES; MATCHES.
C07 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.
Notes[n] C07:
  • In this class, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:
    • "preparation" covers purification, separation, stabilisation or use of additives, unless a separate place is provided therefor.        
  • Biocidal, pest repellant, pest attractant or plant growth regulatory activity of compounds or preparations is further classified in subclass A01P .        
  • In subclasses C07C - C07K  and within each of theses subclasses, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, and with the exception referred to below, a compound is classified in the last appropriate place. For example, 2-butyl-pyridine, which contains an acyclic chain and a heterocyclic ring, is classified only as a heterocyclic compound, in subclass C07D . In general, and in the absence of an indication to the contrary (such as groups C07C 59/58, C07C 59/70 ), the terms "acyclic" and "aliphatic" are used to describe compounds in which there is no ring; and, if a ring were present, the compound would be taken by the "last place" rule to a later group for cycloaliphatic or aromatic compounds, if such a group exists. Where a compound or an entire group of compounds exists in tautomeric forms, it is classified as though existing in the form which is classified last in the system, unless the other form is specifically mentioned earlier in the system.
  • Chemical compounds and their preparation are classified in the groups for the type of compound prepared. The processes of preparation are also classified in places for the types of reaction employed, if of interest. Examples of such places outside this class are:
    • C12P Fermentation or enzyme-using processes to synthesise a desired chemical compound or composition or to separate optical isomers from a racemic mixture
    • C25B 3/00 Electrolytic production of organic compounds
    • C25B 7/00 Electrophoretic production of compounds 
  • General processes for the preparation of a class of compounds falling into more than one main group are classified in the groups for the processes employed, when such groups exist. The compounds prepared are also classified in the groups for the types of compound prepared, if of interest.      
  • In this class, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, the compounds containing carboxyl or thiocarboxyl groups are classified as the relevant carboxylic or thiocarboxylic acids, unless the "last place rule" ( see Note (3), above) dictates otherwise; a carboxyl group being a carbon atom having three bonds, and no more than three, to hetero atoms, other than nitrogen atoms of nitro or nitroso groups, with at least one multiple bond to the same hetero atom and a thiocarboxyl group being a carboxyl group having at least one bond to a sulfur atom, e.g. amides or nitriles of carboxylic acids, are classified with the corresponding acids.        
  • Salts of a compound, unless specifically provided for, are classified as that compound, e.g. aniline hydrochloride is classified as containing carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen only (in group C07C 211/46 ), sodium malonate is classified as malonic acid (in C07C 55/08 ), and a mercaptide is classified as the mercaptan. Metal chelates are dealt with in the same way. Similarly, metal alcoholates and metal phenates are classified in subclass C07C and not in subclass C07F, the alcoholates in groups C07C 31/28 - C07C 31/32  and the phenates as the corresponding phenols in group C07C 39/235  or C07C 39/44 . Salts, adducts or complexes formed between two or more organic compounds are classified according to all compounds forming the salts, adducts or complexes.        
C08 ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON.
Notes[n] C08:
  • This class does not cover the following macromolecular compounds per se :
    • peptides, e.g. proteins, which are covered by subclass C07K ;        
    • compounds containing two or more mononucleotide units having separate phosphate or polyphosphate groups linked by saccharide radicals of nucleoside groups, e.g. nucleic acids, which are covered by group C07H 21/00 ;         
    • DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification, which are covered by group C12N 15/00 .         
  • Biocidal, pest repellant, pest attractant or plant growth regulatory activity of compounds or preparations is further classified in subclass A01P .         
C09 DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR.
C10 PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT.
C11 ANIMAL OR VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES OR WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES.
C12 BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Notes[n] C12:
  • Between subclasses C12M - C12Q, and within each of these subclasses, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place. For example, a fermentation or enzyme-using process involving condition-responsive control is classified in subclass C12Q .  
  • In this class, viruses, undifferentiated human, animal or plant cells, protozoa, tissues and unicellular algae are considered as micro-organisms.  
  • In this class, unless specifically provided for, undifferentiated human, animal or plant cells, protozoa, tissues and unicellular algae are classified together with micro-organisms. Sub-cellular parts, unless specifically provided for, are classified with the whole cell.  
  • The codes of subclass C12R are only for use as indexing codes associated with subclasses C12C - C12Q, so as to provide information concerning the micro-organisms used in the processes classified in these subclasses.   
C13 SUGAR INDUSTRY.
Notes[n] C13:
  • In class C13, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:
    • "sugars" are a class of edible, water-soluble crystalline carbohydrates, having a characteristic sweet taste, including mono-, di- and oligosaccharides, e.g. sucrose, lactose and fructose. A more specific meaning of the term "sugar" is defined in the note of subclass C13B .
C14 SKINS; HIDES; PELTS; LEATHER.
C21 METALLURGY OF IRON.
Notes[t] C21 - C30: METALLURGY
C22 METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS.
Notes[n] C22:
  • Processes or devices specific to the transformation of iron ore or iron carbonyl into iron, either solid or molten, are classified in subclass  C21B .       
  • Processes or devices specific to:
    • processing of pig-iron or cast iron; 
    • manufacture of wrought-iron, wrought-steel or carbon steel;  
    • treatment in molten state of ferrous alloys; 
    are classified in subclass C21C .       
  • The following processes or devices are classified in subclass   C21D :
    • processes specific to heat treatment of ferrous alloys or steels; 
    • devices for heat treatment of metals or alloys.  
C23 COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL.
Notes[n] C23:
  • In this class, the following expression is used with the meaning indicated:
    • "metallic material" covers:
      • metals;  
      • alloys (attention is drawn to the Note following the title of subclass C22C ).
C25 ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR.
Notes[n] C25:
  • Electrolytic or electrophoretic processes or apparatus or operational features are classified
    • in the groups for the compounds or articles produced, and
    • in the groups which cover the apparatus or operational features.   
  • The electrolytic or electrophoretic purification of materials is classified according to the nature of the liquid in the relevant places, e.g. A01K 63/00, C02F 1/46, C25B 15/08, C25D 21/16, C25F 7/02 .   
  • Multi-step processes for surface treatment of metallic material involving at least one process provided for in class C23 and at least one process provided for in class C25  are classified in group  C23F 17/00
C30 CRYSTAL GROWTH.
C40 COMBINATORIAL TECHNOLOGY.
Notes[t] C40: COMBINATORIAL TECHNOLOGY
C99 SUBJECT MATTER NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR IN THIS SECTION.