IPC 2013 : B : SECTION B — PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING.

IPC2013 > B[s] > SECTION B — PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING.
B01 PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL.
Notes[t] B01 - B09: SEPARATING; MIXING
Notes[n] B01 - B07:
  • The following notes are meant to assist in the use of this part of the classification scheme; they must not be read as modifying in any way the elaborations.
    • In this sub-section, the separation of different materials, e.g. of different matter, size, or state, is predominantly found in the following subclasses:
    • The classifying characteristics of these subclasses are:
      • the physical state of the matter to be separated;
      • the principle of the process used;
      • particular kinds of apparatus.
      The first of these characteristics involves six different aspects, assembled in three groups:
      • liquid/liquid or liquid/gas and gas/gas;
      • solid/liquid or solid/gas;
      • solid/solid.
    • These subclasses are to be used according to the following general rules:
      • B01D is the most general class as far as separation other than solids from solids is concerned.
      • Apparatus for separating solids from solids are covered by B03B when the process concerned is regarded as the equivalent of "washing" in the sense of the mining art, even if such apparatus is a pneumatic one, especially pneumatic tables or jigs. Screens per se are not covered by this subclass but are classified in B07B, even if they are being used in a wet process. All other apparatus for the separation of solids from solids according to dry methods are classified in B07B .
      • If the separation takes place as a result of the detection or measurement of some feature of the material or articles to be sorted it is classified in B07C .
      • It should also be noted that the separation of isotopes of the same chemical element is covered by B01D 59/00, whatever process or apparatus is employed.
B02 CRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING; PREPARATORY TREATMENT OF GRAIN FOR MILLING.
B03 SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS OR USING PNEUMATIC TABLES OR JIGS; MAGNETIC OR ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS OR FLUIDS; SEPARATION BY HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC FIELDS.
B04 CENTRIFUGAL APPARATUS OR MACHINES FOR CARRYING-OUT PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES.
Notes[n] B04:
  • Attention is drawn to the Notes following the subsection title "SEPARATING; MIXING".
B05 SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL.
B06 GENERATING OR TRANSMITTING MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS IN GENERAL.
B07 SEPARATING SOLIDS FROM SOLIDS; SORTING.
B08 CLEANING.
B09 DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL.
B21 MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL.
Notes[t] B21 - B32: SHAPING
Notes[n] B21:
  • This class does not cover :
    • combinations of operations covered by different subclasses of class B21, which are covered by subclass B23P;
    • combinations of operations covered by any particular subclass of class B21 with operations covered by other classes, e.g. with operations involving removal of material, which are also covered by subclass B23P, except that if the operations covered by the other classes are subsidiary to the operations properly covered by a single subclass of B21 the combination is classified in that subclass.
  • Processes of a kind covered by this class but applied to non-metallic materials are classified in this class if they are applicable to metal and cannot be classified fully in another class.
B22 CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY.
B23 MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR.
Notes[n] B23:
  • This class covers :
    • operations not provided for in any other class;
    • combinations of operations covered by different subclasses of classes B21 - B24, which combinations are covered by subclass B23P, with the exception of subsidiary operations performed in conjunction with main operations covered by a single subclass;
    • features, specific to machine tools, which relate to a requirement or problem of a nature which is not peculiar to a particular kind of machine tool, e.g. feeding work, which are covered by subclass B23Q, although the realisation of these features may differ according to the kind of machine tool concerned. The said subclass covers such features, in general, even if the feature or a specific function, in any particular case, is to some extent peculiar to, or is claimed only for, machine tools designed for one particular operation; only in exceptional cases are such features classified in the subclass for the machine tool concerned. Certain features of this general nature are, however, referred to subclasses relating to particular metal-working operations, especially B23B, in which case the subclasses in question are not restricted, in respect of those features, to the kind of machine tool with which they are primarily concerned.
  • In this class, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:
    • "metal-working" covers the working of other materials unless the context requires otherwise;
    • "kind of operations" and similar expressions relate to such metal-working operations as boring, drilling, milling and grinding;
    • "kind of machine" means a machine designed for a particular kind of metal-working operation (e.g. a lathe);
    • "form of machine" means a machine of a particular kind adapted or arranged for a particular way of working or for particular work, e.g. face-plate lathe, tailstock lathe, turret lathe;
    • "different machines" covers different forms of machines for performing the same type of metal-working operation, e.g. vertical and horizontal boring machines.
  • If details, components, or accessories have no essential feature specific to machine tools, the more general class, e.g. F16, takes precedence.
B24 GRINDING; POLISHING.
Notes[n] B24:
  • In this class, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:
    • "grinding" is used in its most general sense to mean machining and covers, in particular, "corrective" operations.
B25 HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; HANDLES FOR HAND IMPLEMENTS; WORKSHOP EQUIPMENT; MANIPULATORS.
Notes[n] B25:
  • In this class, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:
    • "portable" includes suspension for easy manual handling, e.g. in connection with spring-suspended portable apparatus for use along assembly lines.
B26 HAND CUTTING TOOLS; CUTTING; SEVERING.
B27 WORKING OR PRESERVING WOOD OR SIMILAR MATERIAL; NAILING OR STAPLING MACHINES IN GENERAL.
B28 WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE.
B29 WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL.
Notes[n] B29:
  • This class does not cover the working of plastics sheet material in a manner analogous to the working of paper, which is covered by class B31 .   
  • In this class, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:
    • "plastics" means macromolecular compounds or compositions based on such compounds.
  • In this class, the following rules apply:
    • The working of plastics is, as far as possible, classified primarily according to the particular shaping technique used, e.g. in subclass B29C .   
    • Classification according to production of particular articles in subclass B29D is restricted to:
      • aspects which are characteristic for the production of a particular article, and not classifiable in subclass B29B  or B29C;
      • combined operations for making the particular article which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C .  
    • Products per se are not classified in this class. However, if a product is characterised by the way it is produced and not by its structure or composition, the production method should be classified in this class.  
  • The codes of subclass B29K are only for use as indexing codes associated with subclasses B29B, B29C, or B29D  so as to provide information concerning moulding materials or materials for reinforcements, fillers or preformed parts, e.g. inserts.   
  • The codes of subclass B29L are only for use as indexing codes associated with subclass B29C, so as to provide information concerning the articles produced by the techniques classified in subclass B29C .   
B30 PRESSES.
B31 MAKING PAPER ARTICLES; WORKING PAPER.
Notes[n] B31:
  • This class covers subject matter restricted to adaptations or associations of handling sheets, webs, or blanks peculiar to paper-working, e.g. bag or box making, machinery.
  • This class does not cover :
    • making articles directly from paper pulp, which is covered by D21J;
    • handling sheets, webs, or blanks of wider applicability, irrespective of whether described or claimed only for paper-working machinery, which is regarded as being of a more comprehensive nature and is covered by B65H .
  • In this class, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:
    • "paper" covers material worked in a manner analogous to paper, e.g. plastics sheet materials, laminated materials or metal foils.
B32 LAYERED PRODUCTS.
B41 PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS.
Notes[t] B41 - B44: PRINTING
B42 BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER.
B43 WRITING OR DRAWING IMPLEMENTS; BUREAU ACCESSORIES.
B44 DECORATIVE ARTS.
Notes[n] B44:
  • Any machine, apparatus, tool or process is classified in this class in so far as it produces an effect or mark meant to be judged by the eye and in so far as such machine, apparatus, tool or process is not provided for elsewhere.  
B60 VEHICLES IN GENERAL.
Notes[t] B60 - B66: TRANSPORTING
Notes[n] B60:
  • In this class, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:
    • "vehicle" means all vehicles except those restricted to one of the following types of vehicles: rail vehicles, waterborne vessels, aircraft, space vehicles, hand carts, cycles, animal-drawn vehicles, and sledges, which are covered by the relevant subclasses of B61 - B64 .
      • Thus the term "vehicle" includes:
        • vehicular characteristics which are common to more than one of the above-listed types;
        • certain characteristics restricted to automobiles, road or cross-country trailers.
        • The following exceptions to the above should be noted:
          • subclass B60B or B60C embrace all vehicle wheels and tyres, except wheels for roller skates A63C 17/22, wheels for model railway vehicles A63H 19/22, and special adaptations of wheels or tyres for aircraft B64C 25/36;
          • subclass B60C embraces the connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies in general, and in this respect it is not limited to vehicles;
          • subclass B60L embraces certain electric equipment of all electrically-propelled vehicles;
          • subclass B60M embraces certain power supply equipment for, but external to, any kind of electrically-propelled vehicle;
          • subclass B60R embraces safety belts or body harnesses used in all types of land vehicles;
          • subclass B60S relates to all kinds of vehicles, except the servicing of rail locomotives B61K 11/00, ground equipment for aircraft B64F, or cleaning apparatus peculiar to waterborne vessels B63B 57/00, B63B 59/00;
          • subclass B60T includes brake control systems of general applicability, and in this respect it is not limited to vehicles. It also includes rail-vehicle power-brake systems and some other features of rail-vehicle brake systems;
          • subclass B60V embraces air-cushion vehicles per se and land vehicles, waterborne vessels or aircraft combined with features allowing them to alternatively operate as air-cushion vehicles or to be partially supported by an air cushion.
B61 RAILWAYS.
Notes[n] B61:
  • In this class, the following expression is used with the meaning indicated:
    • "railway systems" covers:
      • systems in which trains or individual passenger vehicles or load carriers run on, or are guided by, ground or elevated tracks defined by rails, ropes, cables, or other guiding elements for wheels, rollers, or sliding anti-friction devices (permanently attached to a continuous traction element B65G 17/00 );
      • systems in which carriers or impellers for persons or loads are attached to, e.g. suspended from, a guided traction rope or cable which determines their path of movement (chain conveyers, scraper conveyers B65G 17/00, B65G 19/00 );
      • power and free systems of either of the above types in which vehicles, load-carriers, or loads may be selectively coupled to, or uncoupled from, continuous traction members, e.g. cables, chains.
B62 LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS.
B63 SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT.
B64 AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS.
B65 CONVEYING; PACKING; STORING; HANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL.
B66 HOISTING; LIFTING; HAULING.
B67 OPENING OR CLOSING BOTTLES, JARS OR SIMILAR CONTAINERS; LIQUID HANDLING.
B68 SADDLERY; UPHOLSTERY.
B81 MICRO-STRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY.
Notes[t] B81 - B82: MICRO-STRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY; NANO-TECHNOLOGY
Notes[n] B81:
  • This class covers micro-structural devices or systems, including at least one essential element or formation characterised by its very small size, typically within the range of 10 -4 to 10 -7 meters, i.e. its significant features can not, in at least one dimension, be completely discerned without the use of an optical microscope.
  • In this class, the following expressions are used with the meaning indicated:
    • "micro-structural devices" covers:
      • micro-mechanical devices comprising movable, flexible or deformable elements; and
      • three-dimensional structures without movable, flexible or deformable elements, comprising microformations designed to accomplish an essential structural function for interacting with their environment, as opposed to purely electronic or chemical functions, regardless of whether the structures are combined with micro-electronic devices or formed from specific materials;
    • "micro-structural systems" covers:
      • systems of cooperating micro-structural devices; and
      • micro-electro-mechanical or micro-opto-mechanical systems, which combine on a common substrate the specific features of micro-structural devices and electrical or optical components, e.g. for controlling, analysing or signalling the functioning of micro-structural devices.
B82 NANO-TECHNOLOGY.
Notes[n] B82:
  • In this class, the following terms are used with the meaning indicated:
    • “nano-size" or "nano-scale" relate to a controlled geometrical size below 100 nanometres (nm) in one or more dimensions;
    • “nano-structure” means an entity having at least one nano-sized functional component that makes physical, chemical or biological properties or effects available, which are uniquely attributable to the nano-scale.  
B99 SUBJECT MATTER NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR IN THIS SECTION.